HUMAYUNS TOMB

Architect: Mirak Mirza Ghiyath

Architectural style: Mughal architecture


Introduction:

• Humayun's tomb is the tomb of the Mughal Emperor Humayun in Delhi, India built by Akbar.


•Designed by Mirak Mirza Ghiyas,a Persian architect.


• The Tomb stands on a 120-square-metre platform and reaches a height of 47 metres. Built of rubble masonry, the structure is the earliest example of the use of red sandstone and white marble in such great quantities.


• The central walkways, terminate at two gates. It has two double-storey entrances, the West gate which used now, while the South gate, which was used during Mughal era. Aligned at the center on the eastern wall lies a baradari, literally a pavilion with twelve doors, finally on the northern wall lies a hammam, a bath chamber.


• On the south-east of Humayun's Tomb there is fine square tomb of 1590-91, known as the Barber's Tomb

• In plan it is an irregular octagon with four long and four short sides.


• It is surmounted by a 42.5 m high double dome clad with marble flanked by decorative pillared kiosks (chhatris).


• The middle of each side is deeply recessed by large arched vaults with a series of smaller ones set into the face.


• The interior is a large octagonal chamber with vaulted roof compartments interconnected by galleries or corridors. This octagonal plan is repeated on the second storey.



FLOOR PLAN SECTION


Elements of design

Line: The use of horizontal and vertical lines in the elevation. Shape: The shape of the dome is bulbous. The arches are pointed.


Color :Because of the use of red sandstone and white marble the color of the entire structure is red and white.


Texture : The combination of rough texture of the sandstone and the soft texture of the white marble.


Principles of design


Pattern:

Geometrical patterns at the interior of the central dome. The various jaali patterns because of which the interiors are well lit. they act as latices screens from which the sunshine enters the interiors.





Contrast:

Humayun's Tomb was built from red sandstone and white marble and thus exudes a stark contrast against the blue sky.



Emphasis

The dome of the Humayun's tomb acts as a marker in the structure. The emphasis is because of the white color and also because of the bulbous shape of the dome.


Balance

The structure in all perspectives is a balanced structure having a balanced plan,elevations and a balanced view.



Rhythm / Movement

The use of continuous arches which direct the movement of the eye in a straight line.


ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES


• The most striking visual feature of the tomb is its size and its garden setting. In terms of both these features, the tomb established an unprecedented example in Indian Islamic architecture. Four central axial water courses define Char Bagh Garden's quadrilateral layout at Humayun's Tomb



INSPIRATION


Charbagh or Chahar Bagh (Persian: chahār bāgh, "Four Bāghs") is a Persian-style garden layout. The quadrilateral garden is divided by walkways or flowing water into four smaller parts. In Persian,"Chār" means 'four'and "bāgh" means'garden'.


• One of the eye-catching features of the tomb is its raised plinth that is the cause of its visibility on the city skyline today.But historically its importance lay in the 56 cells housed within that raised plinth and that were used as the burial place of almost 100 royal descendants and relatives. Red box showing the plin

PLINTH

• The built form of the building (especially the dome), though apparently derived from existing Sultanate and Timurid examples, is distinct from either. It attempts to fuse together the formal aspects of both these types. By doing so he established a link as the successor to the glorious Timurid’s of Iran as well as the Islamic empire in India. Sultanate example Timurid examples Dome of Humayun’s tomb


• The use of red sandstone with white marbles is a reference to the previous architecture of the Delhi Sultanate and places the building as a logical continuation in the same tradition. Delhi sultanate examples White marble and red sandstone


AESTHETICS - These elements contribute to the visual treat at Humayun's tomb.

• A very well chosen rich red gravel used for the paths.


• A delightful fountain, water flowing in the stone-edged channels and planting rising from below the walkway to above the walkway, as it should


Achadar(water sheet)cascading into a pool.


• Humayun's Tomb Garden has a symmetrical plan. Because the word chahar bagh means 'four garden', etymologically, it is tempting to think of this as a classical example. But it now seems unlikely that the old Persian, Timurid and Afgan gardens which inspired this pattern were themselves symmetrical.


SYMBOLISM


• The building can be considered a memorial to the expansion and the establishment of the vast Mughal Empire in India, a symbol of a vision of kingship and an affirmation of the Mughal power and permanence in India.


• It can also be considered as embodiment of the secular principles promoted by Akbar. In building such a remarkable monument, Akbar (to whom the patronage of the building is attributed), provided the city of Delhi with a visual and religious signifies.


THUS INSPIRED…

• It inspired several major architectural innovations, culminating in the construction of the

Taj Mahal.

EXPRESSIONISM

Humayun was the second emperor of the Mughal empire. Humayun’s tomb serve as a focus for memory of the king. Humayun was the son and successor of Bābur, who had founded the Mughal dynasty, He ruled from 1530 to 1540 and again from 1555 to 1556. Humayun was fatally injured by falling down the staircase of his library. When Humayun had died in 1556, Bega Begum was so grieved over her husband's death that she dedicated her life thenceforth to a sole purpose: the construction of the most magnificent mausoleum in the Empire, at a site near the Yamuna River in Delhi for the memorial of the late Emperor.

Thus, the humayun’stomb is an expression of love of a wife towards her dead husband. It is an expression of the dedication of a wife for her husband. Mughal emperor Humayun


Ornamentation



Beautiful ceiling with windows& ornaments


Ornamental arches of humayuns tomb


Ceiling of entrance chamber inside

The structure is of dressed stone clad in red sandstone with white and black inlaid marble borders.

Humayun's garden-tomb is also called the 'dormitory of the Mughals' as in the cells are buried over 150 Mughal family members.

This structure is known for its unique architecture, as it is octagonal on the outside while square within; its ceilings decorated with painted and incised plaster,it has a high neck dome and shows a conspicuous absence of a double dome feature,common to tombs of the period.


The stone windows are placed in such a way on all the floors that they allow light to streaminto the centralhall throughout the day.



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